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Author Composer Writer Performer : Beethoven

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Famous Person: Ludwig Van Beethoven

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Piano Trio No. 1 in E flat major
Piano Trio No. 2 in G major
Piano Trio No. 3 in C minor: later arranged for string quintet as Opus 104
Piano Sonata No. 1 in F minor: second movement uses material -
from the Piano Quartet WoO 36 #3
Piano Sonata No. 2 in A major
Piano Sonata No. 3 in C major: first movement uses material -
from the Piano Quartet WoO 36 #3
String Trio in E flat major: an incomplete piano trio arrangement -
exists as Hess 47; also Hess 25 may be an earlier version of the finale
String Quintet in E flat major: after the Octet Opus 103
Sonata No. 1 for Piano & Cello in F major
Sonata No. 2 for Piano & Cello in G minor
Sonata for Piano Duet in D major
Piano Sonata No. 4 in E flat major
Serenade for String Trio in D major: (arranged later for piano & viola Opus 42)
String Trio in G major: Hess 28 is a second Trio for the Scherzo
String Trio in D major
String Trio in C minor
Piano Sonata No. 5 in C minor: also see WoO 52, WoO 53 and Hess 69
Piano Sonata No. 6 in F major
Piano Sonata No. 7 in D major
Trio for Piano, Clarinet or Violin, & Cello in B flat major
Sonata No. 1 for Piano & Violin in D major
Sonata No. 2 for Piano & Violin in A major
Sonata No. 3 for Piano & Violin in E flat major
Piano Sonata No. 8 in C minor: "Pathétique"
Piano Sonata No. 9 in E major: also arranged for String Quartet Hess 34
Piano Sonata No. 10 in G major
Concerto No. 1 for Piano & Orchestra in C major
Quintet for Piano, Oboe, Clarinet, Horn & Bassoon in E flat major
Piano Quartet in E flat major
Sonata for Piano & French Horn in F major
String Quartet No. 1 in F major: Hess 32 is an early version
String Quartet No. 2 in G major: "Compliments Quartet"
String Quartet No. 3 in D major
String Quartet No. 4 in C minor
String Quartet No. 5 in A major
String Quartet No. 6 in B flat major
Concerto No. 2 for Piano & Orchestra in B flat major
Septet for Clarinet, Bassoon, Horn, Violin, Viola, Cello, -
Bass in E flat major: also arranged for piano trio Opus 38
Symphony No. 1 in C major
Piano Sonata No. 11 in B flat major
Sonata No. 4 for Piano & Violin in A minor
Sonata No. 5 for Piano & Violin in F major: "Frühlings - Sonate" (Spring)
Serenade for Flute, Violin & Viola in D major: (transcribed -
later for Flute & Piano Opus 41)
Piano Sonata No. 12 in A flat major: "Funeral March"; third movement -
arranged for "Leonore Prohaska" WoO 96
Piano Sonata No. 13 in E flat major: "Sonata quasi una Fantasia"
Piano Sonata No. 14 in C sharp minor: "Mondschein-Sonate" -
(Moonlight); "Sonata quasi una Fantasia"
Piano Sonata No. 15 in D major: "Pastorale"
String Quintet in C major
Sonata No. 6 for Piano & Violin in A major
Sonata No. 7 for Piano & Violin in C minor
Sonata No. 8 for Piano & Violin in G major
Piano Sonata No. 16 in G major
Piano Sonata No. 17 in D minor: "Sturm-Sonate" (Tempest)
Piano Sonata No. 18 in E flat major
Song: "An die Hoffnung"; from Tiedge’s "Urania"; "Die du so gern -
in heilgen Nächten feierst" (1st setting); 2nd setting is Opus 94
Bagatelle for Piano in E flat major: Andante grazioso quasi -
allegretto; #1 of 7 Bagatelles
Bagatelle for Piano in C major: Scherzo; #2 of 7 Bagatelles
Bagatelle for Piano in F major: Allegretto; #3 of 7 Bagatelles
Bagatelle for Piano in A major: Andante; #4 of 7 Bagatelles
Bagatelle for Piano in C major: Allegro ma non troppo; #5 of 7 Bagatelles
Bagatelle for Piano in D major: Allegretto quasi andante; #6 of 7 Bagatelles
Bagatelle for Piano in A flat major: Presto; #7 of 7 Bagatelles
6 Variations for Piano in F major: on an original theme
15 Variations with Fugue for Piano in E flat major: "Eroica-Variationen"; -
on a theme from the ballet "Die Geschopfe des Prometheus"
Symphony No. 2 in D major
Concerto No. 3 for Piano & Orchestra in C minor
Trio for Piano, Clarinet or Violin, & Cello in E flat major: after the Septet Opus 20
Prelude for Piano or Organ in C major: through the 12 major keys
Prelude for Piano or Organ in C major: through the 12 major keys
Romance No. 1 for Violin & Orchestra in G major
Serenade for Piano & Flute in D major: after the Serenade Opus 25; -
arranged by Franz Xaver Kleinheinz

Authors Description: (born Bonn, baptized 17 December 1770; died Vienna, 26 March 1827). He studied first with his father, Johann, a singer and instrumentalist in the service of the Elector of Cologne at Bonn, but mainly with C.G. Neefe, court organist. At 11 ½ he was able to deputize for Neefe; at 12 he had some music published. In 1787 he went to Vienna, but quickly returned on hearing that his mother was dying. Five years later he went back to Vienna, where he settled. He pursued his studies, first with Haydn, but there was some clash of temperaments and Beethoven studied too with Schenk, Albrechtsberger and Salieri. Until 1794 he was supported by the Elector at Bonn but he found patrons among the music-loving Viennese aristocracy and soon enjoyed success as a piano virtuoso, playing at private houses or palaces rather than in public. His public debut was in 1795; about the same time his first important publications appeared, three piano trios op.l and three piano sonatas op.2. As a pianist, it was reported, he had fire, brilliance and fantasy as well as depth of feeling. It is naturally in the piano sonatas, writing for his own instrument, that he is at his most original in this period; the Pathetique belongs to 1799, the Moonlight ('Sonata quasi una fantasia') to 1801, and these represent only the most obvious innovations in style and emotional content. These years also saw the composition of his first three piano concertos, his first two symphonies and a set of six string quartets op.l8. 1802, however, was a year of crisis for Beethoven, with his realization that the impaired hearing he had noticed for some time was incurable and sure to worsen. That autumn, at a village outside Vienna, Heiligenstadt, he wrote a will-like document, addressed to his two brothers, describing his bitter unhappiness over his affliction in terms suggesting that he thought death was near. But he came through with his determination strengthened and entered a new creative phase, generally called his 'middle period'. It is characterized by a heroic tone, evident in the Eroica Symphony (no.3, originally to have been dedicated not to a noble patron but to Napoleon), in Symphony no.5, where the sombre mood of the c Minor first movement ('Fate knocking on the door') ultimately yields to a triumphant C Major finale with piccolo, trombones and percussion added to the orchestra, and in his opera Fidelio. Here the heroic theme is made explicit by the story, in which (in the post-French Revolution 'rescue opera' tradition) a wife saves her imprisoned husband from murder at the hands of his oppressive political enemy. The three string quartets of this period, op.59, are similarly heroic in scale: the first, lasting some 45 minutes, is conceived with great breadth, and it too embodies a sense of triumph as the intense f Minor Adagio gives way to a jubilant finale in the major embodying (at the request of the dedicatee, Count Razumovsky) a Russian folk melody. Fidelio, unsuccessful at its premiere, was twice revised by Beethoven and his librettists and successful in its final version of 1814. Here there is more emphasis on the moral force of the story. It deals not only with freedom and justice, and heroism, but also with married love, and in the character of the heroine Leonore, Beethoven's lofty, idealized image of womanhood is to be seen. He did not find it in real life he fell in love several times, usually with aristocratic pupils (some of them married), and each time was either rejected or saw that the woman did not match his ideals. In 1812, however, he wrote a passionate love-letter to an 'Eternally Beloved' (probably Antonie Brentano, a Viennese married to a Frankfurt businessman), but probably the letter was never sent. With his powerful and expansive middle-period works, which include the Pastoral Symphony (no.6, conjuring up his feelings about the countryside, which he loved), Symphony no.7 and Symphony no. 8, Piano Concertos nos.4 (a lyrical work) and 5 (the noble and brilliant Emperor) and the Violin Concerto, as well as more chamber works and piano sonatas (such as the Waldstein and the Appassionata) Beethoven was firmly established as the greatest composer of his time. His piano-playing career had finished in 1808 (a charity appearance in 1814 was a disaster because of his deafness). That year he had considered leaving Vienna for a secure post in Germany, but three Viennese noblemen had banded together to provide him with a steady income and he remained there, although the plan foundered in the ensuing Napoleonic wars in which his patrons suffered and the value of Austrian money declined. The years after 1812 were relatively unproductive. He seems to have been seriously depressed, by his deafness and the resulting isolation, by the failure of his marital hopes and (from 1815) by anxieties over the custodianship of the son of his late brother, which involved him in legal actions. But he came out of these trials to write his profoundest music, which surely reflects something of what he had been through. There are seven piano sonatas in this, his 'late period', including the turbulent Hammerklavier op.106, with its dynamic writing and its harsh, rebarbative fugue, and op.110, which also has fugues and much eccentric writing at the instrument's extremes of compass; there is a great Mass and a Choral Symphony, no.9 in d Minor, where the extended variation-finale is a setting for soloists and chorus of Schiller's Ode to Joy; and there is a group of string quartets, music on a new plane of spiritual depth, with their exalted ideas, abrupt contrasts and emotional intensity. The traditional four-movement scheme and conventional forms are discarded in favour of designs of six or seven movements, some fugal, some akin to variations (these forms especially attracted him in his late years), some song-like, some martial, one even like a chorale prelude. For Beethoven, the act of composition had always been a struggle, as the tortuous scrawls of his sketchbooks show; in these late works the sense of agonizing effort is a part of the music. Musical taste in Vienna had changed during the first decades of the 19th century; the public were chiefly interested in light Italian opera (especially Rossini) and easygoing chamber music and songs, to suit the prevalent bourgeois taste. Yet the Viennese were conscious of Beethoven's greatness: they applauded the Choral Symphony even though, understandably, they found it difficuit, and though baffled by the late quartets they sensed their extraordinary visionary qualities. His reputation went far beyond Vienna: the late Mass was first heard in St. Petersburg, and the initial commission that produced the Choral Symphony had come from the Philharmonic Society of London. When, early in 1827, he died, 10,000 are said to have attended the funeral. He had become a public figure, as no composer had done before. Unlike composers of the preceding generation, he had never been a purveyor of music to the nobility he had lived into the age - indeed helped create it - of the artist as hero and the property of mankind at large.

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